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A005013 a(n) = 3*a(n-2) - a(n-4), a(0)=0, a(1)=1, a(2)=1, a(3)=4. Alternates Fibonacci (A000045) and Lucas (A000032) sequences for even and odd n.
(Formerly M3214)
16
0, 1, 1, 4, 3, 11, 8, 29, 21, 76, 55, 199, 144, 521, 377, 1364, 987, 3571, 2584, 9349, 6765, 24476, 17711, 64079, 46368, 167761, 121393, 439204, 317811, 1149851, 832040, 3010349, 2178309, 7881196, 5702887, 20633239, 14930352, 54018521, 39088169, 141422324 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,4

COMMENTS

S(n,sqrt(5)), with the Chebyshev polynomials A049310, is an integer sequence in the real quadratic number field Q(sqrt(5)) with basis numbers <1,phi>, phi:=(1+sqrt(5))/2. S(n,sqrt(5)) = A(n) + 2*B(n)*phi, with A(n)= a(n+1)*(-1)^n and B(n)= A147600(n-1), n>=0, with A147600(-1):=0.

a(n) = p(n+1) where p(x) is the unique degree-(n-1) polynomial such that p(k) = Fibonacci(k) for k = 1, ..., n. - Michael Somos, Jan 08 2012

Row sums of A227431. - Richard R. Forberg, Jul 29 2013

This is the sequence of Lehmer numbers u_n(sqrt(R),Q) with the parameters R = 5 and Q = 1. It is a strong divisibility sequence, that is, gcd(a(n), a(m)) = a(gcd(n,m)) for all natural numbers n and m. The sequence satisfies a linear recurrence of order four. - Peter Bala, Apr 18 2014

The sequence of convergents of the 2-periodic continued fraction [0; 1, -5, 1, -5, ...] = 1/(1 - 1/(5 - 1/(1 - 1/(5 - ...)))) = (1/2)*(5 - sqrt(5)) begins [0/1, 1/1, 5/4, 4/3, 15/11, 11/8, 40/29, ...]; the denominators give the present sequence. The sequence of numerators [0, 1, 5, 4, 15, 11, 40, ...] is A203976. Cf. A108412 and A026741. - Peter Bala, May 19 2014

Define a binary operation o on the real numbers by x o y = x*sqrt(1 + y^2) + y*sqrt(1 + x^2). The operation o is commutative and associative with identity 0. We have (1/2)*a(2*n + 1) = 1/2 o 1/2 o ... o 1/2 (2*n + 1 terms) and (1/2)*sqrt(5)* a(2*n) = 1/2 o 1/2 o ... o 1/2 (2*n terms). Cf. A084068 and A049629. - Peter Bala, Mar 23 2018

REFERENCES

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

G. C. Greubel, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..2000 (terms 0..500 from T. D. Noe)

A. F. Horadam, R. P. Loh and A. G. Shannon, Divisibility properties of some Fibonacci-type sequences, pp. 55-64 of Combinatorial Mathematics VI (Armidale 1978), Lect. Notes Math. 748, 1979. [Annotated scanned copy]

Seong Ju Kim, R. Stees, L. Taalman, Sequences of Spiral Knot Determinants, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 19 (2016), #16.1.4.

D. H. Lehmer, An extended theory of Lucas' functions, Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Jul., 1930), pp. 419-448.

Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.

Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions and Conjectures, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.

E. W. Weisstein, MathWorld: Lehmer Number

H. C. Williams and R. K. Guy, Odd and even linear divisibility sequences of order 4, INTEGERS, 2015, #A33.

Index to divisibility sequences

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (0,3,0,-1).

FORMULA

a(1) = a(2) = 1, a(3) = 4, a(n) = (a(n-1) * a(n-2) - 1) / a(n-3), unless n=3. a(-n) = -a(n).

a(2n) = A001906(n), a(2n+1) = A002878(n). a(n)=F(n+1)+(-1)^(n+1)F(n-1). - Mario Catalani (mario.catalani(AT)unito.it), Sep 20 2002

G.f.: x*(1+x+x^2)/((1-x-x^2)*(1+x-x^2)).

a(n) = Product_{k=1..floor((n-1)/2)} (1 + 4*sin(k*Pi/n)^2). - Roger L. Bagula and Gary W. Adamson, Nov 26 2008

Binomial transform is A096140. - Michael Somos, Apr 13 2012

From Peter Bala, Apr 18 2014: (Start)

a(n) = (alpha^n - beta^n)/(alpha - beta) for n odd, and a(n) = (alpha^n - beta^n)/(alpha^2 - beta^2) for n even, where alpha = (1/2)*(sqrt(5) + 1) and beta = (1/2)*(sqrt(5) - 1). Equivalently, a(n) = U(n-1, sqrt(5)/2) for n odd and a(n) = (1/sqrt(5))*U(n-1, sqrt(5)/2) for n even, where U(n,x) is the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind. (End)

E.g.f.: (Phi/sqrt(5))*exp(-Phi*x)*(exp(x)-1)*(exp(sqrt(5)*x) - 1/(Phi)^2), where Phi = (1+sqrt(5))/2. - G. C. Greubel, Feb 08 2016

a(n) = (5^floor((n-1)/2)/2^(n-1))*Sum_{k=0..n-1} binomial(n-1,k)/5^floor(k/2). - Tony Foster III, Oct 21 2018

a(n) = hypergeom([(1 - n)/2, (n + 1) mod 2 - n/2], [1 - n], -4) for n >= 2. - Peter Luschny, Sep 03 2019

EXAMPLE

G.f. = x + x^2 + 4*x^3 + 3*x^4 + 11*x^5 + 8*x^6 + 29*x^7 + 21*x^8 + 76*x^9 + ...

a(3) = 4 since p(x) = (x^2 - 3*x + 4) / 2 interpolates p(1) = 1, p(2) = 1, p(3) = 2, and p(4) = 4. - Michael Somos, Jan 08 2012

MAPLE

with(combinat): A005013 := n-> if n mod 2 = 0 then fibonacci(n) else fibonacci(n+1)+fibonacci(n-1); fi;

A005013:=z*(z**2+z+1)/((z**2+z-1)*(z**2-z-1)); # Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation

MATHEMATICA

CoefficientList[Series[(x + x^2 + x^3)/(1 - 3x^2 + x^4), {x, 0, 40}], x]

f[n_] = Product[(1 + 4*Sin[k*Pi/n]^2), {k, 1, Floor[(n - 1)/2]}]; a = Table[f[n], {n, 0, 30}]; Round[a]; FullSimplify[ExpandAll[a]] (* Roger L. Bagula and Gary W. Adamson, Nov 26 2008 *)

LinearRecurrence[{0, 3, 0, -1}, {0, 1, 1, 4}, 100] (* G. C. Greubel, Feb 08 2016 *)

PROG

(PARI) {a(n) = if( n%2, fibonacci(n+1) + fibonacci(n-1), fibonacci(n))}; /* Michael Somos, Jan 08 2012 */

(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<0, -a(-n), subst( polinterpolate( vector( n, k, fibonacci(k))), x, n+1))}; /* Michael Somos, Jan 08 2012 */

(Haskell)

a005013 n = a005013_list !! n

a005013_list = alt a000045_list a000032_list where

   alt (f:_:fs) (_:l:ls) = f : l : alt fs ls

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Jan 10 2012

(MAGMA) I:=[0, 1, 1, 4]; [n le 4 select I[n]  else 3*Self(n-2) - Self(n-4): n in [1..40]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Feb 09 2016

(GAP) a:=[0, 1, 1, 4];; for n in [5..40] do a[n]:=3*a[n-2]-a[n-4]; od; a; # Muniru A Asiru, Oct 21 2018

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000032, A000045, A001906, A002878, A005247, A096140, A026741, A108412, A084068, A049629.

Sequence in context: A222510 A100492 A072183 * A241643 A086564 A316966

Adjacent sequences:  A005010 A005011 A005012 * A005014 A005015 A005016

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

EXTENSIONS

Additional comments from Michael Somos, Jun 01 2000

STATUS

approved

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Last modified November 13 21:28 EST 2019. Contains 329106 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)