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A003051 Number of inequivalent sublattices of index n in hexagonal lattice (two sublattices are equivalent if one can be rotated or reflected to give the other).
(Formerly M0420)
23
1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 5, 4, 4, 3, 8, 4, 5, 6, 9, 4, 8, 5, 10, 8, 7, 5, 15, 7, 8, 9, 13, 6, 14, 7, 15, 10, 10, 10, 20, 8, 11, 12, 20, 8, 18, 9, 17, 16, 13, 9, 28, 12, 17, 14, 20, 10, 22, 14, 25, 16, 16, 11, 34, 12, 17, 21, 27, 16, 26, 13, 24, 18, 26, 13, 40, 14 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,3

COMMENTS

The hexagonal lattice is the familiar 2-dimensional lattice in which each point has 6 neighbors. This is sometimes called the triangular lattice.

From Andrey Zabolotskiy, Mar 10 2018: (Start)

If only primitive sublattices are considered, we get A003050.

Here only rotations and reflections preserving the parent hexagonal lattice are allowed. If reflections are not allowed, we get A145394. If any rotations and reflections are allowed, we get A300651.

In other words, the parent lattice of the sublattices under consideration has Patterson symmetry group p6mm, and two sublattices are considered equivalent if they are related via a symmetry from that group [Rutherford]. For other 2D Patterson groups, the analogous sequences are A000203 (p2), A069734 (p2mm), A145391 (c2mm), A145392 (p4), A145393 (p4mm), A145394 (p6).

Rutherford says at p. 161 that his sequence for p6mm differs from this sequence, but it seems that with the current definition and terms of this sequence, this actually is his p6mm sequence, and the sequence he thought to be this one is actually A300651. Also, he says that a(n) != A300651(n) only when A002324(n) > 2 (first time happens at n = 49), but actually these two sequences differ at other terms, too, for example, at n = 42 (see illustration). (End)

REFERENCES

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

Vincenzo Librandi, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..1000

A. Altshuler, Construction and enumeration of regular maps on the torus, Discrete Math. 4 (1973), 201-217.

A. Altshuler, Construction and enumeration of regular maps on the torus, Discrete Math. 4 (1973), 201-217. [Annotated and corrected scanned copy]

M. Bernstein, N. J. A. Sloane and P. E. Wright, On Sublattices of the Hexagonal Lattice, Discrete Math. 170 (1997) 29-39 (Abstract, pdf, ps).

Amihay Hanany, Domenico Orlando, and Susanne Reffert, Sublattice counting and orbifolds, High Energ. Phys., 2010 (2010), 51, arXiv.org:1002.2981 [hep-th] (see Table 3)

G. Nebe and N. J. A. Sloane, Home page for hexagonal (or triangular) lattice A2

John S. Rutherford, Sublattice enumeration. IV. Equivalence classes of plane sublattices by parent Patterson symmetry and colour lattice group type, Acta Cryst. (2009). A65, 156-163. [See Table 2].

Andrey Zabolotskiy, Sublattices of the hexagonal lattice (illustrations for n = 1..7, 14)

Index entries for sequences related to sublattices

Index entries for sequences related to A2 = hexagonal = triangular lattice

FORMULA

a(n) = Sum_{ m^2 | n } A003050(n/m^2).

a(n) = (A000203(n) + 2*A002324(n) + 3*A145390(n))/6. [Rutherford] - N. J. A. Sloane, Mar 13 2009

MATHEMATICA

max = 73; A145390 = Drop[ CoefficientList[ Series[ Sum[(1 + Cos[n*Pi/2])*x^n/(1 - x^n), {n, 1, max}], {x, 0, max}], x], 1]; A002324[n_] := (dn = Divisors[n]; Count[dn, _?(Mod[#, 3] == 1 & )] - Count[dn, _?(Mod[#, 3] == 2 & )]); a[n_] := (DivisorSigma[1, n] + 2 A002324[n] + 3*A145390[[n]])/6; Table[a[n], {n, 1, max}] (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Oct 11 2011, after given formula *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A003050, A054384, A001615, A006984, A054345, A054346, A000203, A069734, A145391, A145392, A145393, A145394.

Sequence in context: A036762 A032154 A300651 * A257396 A293519 A237582

Adjacent sequences:  A003048 A003049 A003050 * A003052 A003053 A003054

KEYWORD

nonn,nice,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 28 05:29 EDT 2018. Contains 304733 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)