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A002171 Glaisher's chi numbers. a(n) = chi(4*n + 1).
(Formerly M0745 N0280)
16
1, -2, -3, 6, 2, 0, -1, -10, 0, -2, 10, 6, -7, 14, 0, -10, -12, 0, -6, 0, 9, -4, 10, 0, 18, -2, 0, 6, -14, -18, -11, 12, 0, 0, -22, 0, 20, 14, -6, 22, 0, 0, 23, -26, 0, -18, 4, 0, -14, -2, 0, -20, 0, 0, 0, 12, 3, 30, 26, 0, -30, 14, 0, 0, 2, 30, -28, -26, 0, -18, 10, 0, -13, -34, 0, 0, 20, 0, 26, 22, 0, -6, 0, 6, 18, 0 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

Number 49 of the 74 eta-quotients listed in Table I of Martin (1996).

Ramanujan theta functions: f(q) (see A121373), phi(q) (A000122), psi(q) (A010054), chi(q) (A000700).

Glaisher (1884) essentially defines chi(n) as the sum over all solutions of n = x^2 + y^2 with even y and nonnegative odd x of x * (-1)^((x + y - 1)/2) and proves that it is multiplicative. If n is not == 1 (mod 4) then chi(n) = 0. - Michael Somos, Jun 18 2012

Denoted by g_2(q) in Cynk and Hulek on page 8 as the unique weight 2 level 32 newform. - Michael Somos, Aug 24 2012

This is a member of an infinite family of integer weight modular forms. g_1 = A008441, g_2 = A002171, g_3 = A000729, g_4 = A215601, g_5 = A215472. - Michael Somos, Aug 24 2012

The weight 2 level N = 32 newform (eta(q^4)*eta(q^8))^2 belongs to the elliptic curves y^2 = x^3 + 4*x , y^2 = x^3 - x, y^2 = x^3 - 11*x - 14 and y^2 = x^3 - 11*x + 14. See the Martin-Ono link, Theorem 2, row N = 32, and the Cremona link, Table 1, N = 32. - Wolfdieter Lang, Dec 26 2016

REFERENCES

N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

Seiichi Manyama, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..10000 (first 1001 terms from T. D. Noe)

Amanda Clemm, Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms, Mathematics, volume 4, issue 1, (2016)

J. E. Cremona, Algorithms for Modular Elliptic Curves.

S. Cynk and K. Hulek, Construction and examples of higher-dimensional modular Calabi-Yau manifolds, arXiv:math/0509424 [math.AG], 2005-2006.

S. R. Finch, Powers of Euler's q-Series, arXiv:math/0701251 [math.NT], 2007.

Steven R. Finch, Mathematical Constants II, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018.

J. W. L. Glaisher, On the function chi(n), Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 20 (1884), 97-167.

J. W. L. Glaisher, On the function chi(n), Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 20 (1884), 97-167. [Annotated scanned copy]

T. Ishikawa, Congruences between binomial coefficients binom(2f,f) and Fourier coefficients of certain eta-products, Hiroshima Math. J. 22 (1992), no. 3, 583-590.

M. Koike, On McKay's conjecture, Nagoya Math. J., 95 (1984), 85-89.

Y. Martin, Multiplicative eta-quotients, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 348 (1996), no. 12, 4825-4856, see page 4852 Table I.

Yves Martin and Ken Ono, Eta-Quotients and Elliptic Curves, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 125, No 11 (1997), 3169-3176.

Michael Somos, Index to Yves Martin's list of 74 multiplicative eta-quotients and their A-numbers

M. Somos, Introduction to Ramanujan theta functions

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Ramanujan Theta Functions

Index entries for sequences related to Glaisher's numbers

FORMULA

Expansion of (psi(x) * phi(-x))^2 = phi(-x) * f(-x^2)^3 in powers of x where phi(), psi(), f() are Ramanujan theta functions.

Expansion of q^(-1/4) * eta(q)^2 * eta(q^2)^2 in powers of q.

Euler transform of period 2 sequence [-2, -4, ...].

a(n) = b(4*n + 1) where b(n) is multiplicative with b(p^e) = b(p) * b(p^(e-1)) - p * b(p^(e-2)) and b(p) = p - number of solutions of y^2 = x^3 - x (mod p). - Michael Somos, Jul 27 2006. b(p(n)) = A278720(n). - Wolfdieter Lang, Dec 26 2016

G.f.: (Product_{k>0} (1 - x^k) * (1 - x^(2*k)))^2.

G.f.: Sum_{k>=0} a(k) * x^(4*k + 1) = (Sum_{k>=0} (-1)^k * (2*k + 1) * x^(2*k + 1)^2) * (Sum_{k in Z} (-1)^k * x^(4*k)^2).

Coefficients of L-series for elliptic curve "32a2": y^2 = x^3 - x.

G.f. is a period 1 Fourier series which satisfies f(-1 / (32 t)) = 32 (t/i)^2 f(t) where q = exp(2 Pi i t).

G.f.: exp(2*Sum_{k>=1} (sigma(2*k) - 4*sigma(k))*x^k/k). - Ilya Gutkovskiy, Sep 19 2018

EXAMPLE

G.f. = 1 - 2*x - 3*x^2 + 6*x^3 + 2*x^4 - x^6 - 10*x^7 - 2*x^9 + 10*x^10 + ...

G.f. (eta(q^4)*eta(q^8))^2 = q - 2*q^5 - 3*q^9 + 6*q^13 + 2*q^17 - q^25 - 10*q^29 - 2*q^37 + 10*q^41 + ...

MATHEMATICA

max=100; f[x_] := Product[(1-x^k)*(1-x^(2k)), {k, 1, max}]^2; CoefficientList[ Series[ f[x], {x, 0, max}], x](* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Jan 04 2012, after g.f. *)

a[ n_] := SeriesCoefficient[ (QPochhammer[ x] QPochhammer[ x^2])^2, {x, 0, n}]; (* Michael Somos, Jun 18 2012 *)

a[ n_] := SeriesCoefficient[ EllipticTheta[ 4, 0, x] QPochhammer[ x^2]^3, {x, 0, n}]; (* Michael Somos, Jun 18 2012 *)

PROG

(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<0, 0, ellak( ellinit( [0, 0, 0, -1, 0], 1), 4*n + 1))}; /* Michael Somos, Jul 27 2006 */

(PARI) {a(n) = my(A); if( n<0, 0, A = x * O(x^n); polcoeff( (eta(x + A) * eta(x^2 + A))^2, n))}; /* Michael Somos, Jul 27 2006 */

(PARI) {a(n) = my(A, p, e, x, y, a0, a1); if( n<0, 0, A = factor( 4*n + 1); prod( k=1, matsize(A)[1], [p, e] = A[k, ]; if( p==2, 0, p%4==3, (-p)^(e/2) * (1 + (-1)^e) / 2, forstep( i=1, sqrtint(p), 2, if( issquare( p - i^2, &y), x=i; break)); a0 = 1; y = a1 = x * (-1)^((x + y)\2) * if(y, 2, 1); for(i=2, e, x = y * a1 - p * a0; a0=a1; a1=x); a1 )))}; /* Michael Somos, Jun 18 2012 */

(MAGMA) A := Basis( ModularForms( Gamma0(32), 2), 341); A[2] - 2*A[6]; /* Michael Somos, Jun 12 2014 */

(MAGMA) qEigenform( EllipticCurve( [0, 0, 0, -1, 0]), 341); /* Michael Somos, Jun 12 2014 */

(MAGMA) Basis( CuspForms( Gamma0(32), 2), 341)[1]; /* Michael Somos, Mar 25 2015 */

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000203, A002172, A278720, A279955.

Sequence in context: A093095 A260611 A263502 * A138515 A107410 A132041

Adjacent sequences:  A002168 A002169 A002170 * A002172 A002173 A002174

KEYWORD

sign,easy,nice

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane.

STATUS

approved

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Last modified June 24 05:21 EDT 2019. Contains 324318 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)