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 A000378 Sums of three squares: numbers of the form x^2 + y^2 + z^2. 54
 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 1,3 COMMENTS An equivalent definition: numbers of the form x^2 + y^2 + z^2 with x,y,z >= 0. Bourgain studies "the spatial distribution of the representation of a large integer as a sum of three squares, on the small and critical scale as well as their electrostatic energy. The main results announced give strong evidence to the thesis that the solutions behave randomly. This is in sharp contrast to what happens with sums of two or four or more square." Sums of two nonzero squares are A000404. - Jonathan Vos Post, Apr 03 2012 The multiplicities for a(n) (if 0 <= x <= y <= z) are given as A000164(a(n)), n >= 1. Compare with A005875(a(n)) for integer x, y and z, and order taken into account. - Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 08 2013 a(n)^k is a member of this sequence for any k > 1. - Boris Putievskiy, May 05 2013 REFERENCES J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, "Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups", Springer-Verlag, p. 107. E. Grosswald, Representations of Integers as Sums of Squares. Springer-Verlag, NY, 1985, p. 37. G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. 3rd ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 1954, p. 311. LINKS T. D. Noe, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000 Jean Bourgain, Peter Sarnak and Zeév Rudnick, Local statistics of lattice points on the sphere, arXiv:1204.0134 [math.NT], 2012-2015. J. W. Cogdell, On sums of three squares, Journal de théorie des nombres de Bordeaux, 15 no. 1 (2003), p. 33-44. L. E. Dickson, Integers represented by positive ternary quadratic forms, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 33 (1927), 63-70. See Theorem I. Eric T. Mortenson, A Kronecker-type identity and the representations of a number as a sum of three squares, arXiv:1702.01627 [math.NT], 2017. P. Pollack, Analytic and Combinatorial Number Theory Course Notes, p. 91. [?Broken link] P. Pollack, Analytic and Combinatorial Number Theory Course Notes, p. 91. Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Square Number FORMULA Legendre: a nonnegative integer is a sum of three squares iff it is not of the form 4^k m with m == 7 (mod 8). n^(2k+1) is in the sequence iff n is in the sequence. - Ray Chandler, Feb 03 2009 Complement of A004215; complement of A000302(i)*A004771(j), i,j>=0. - Boris Putievskiy, May 05 2013 a(n) = 6n/5 + O(log n). - Charles R Greathouse IV, Mar 14 2014 EXAMPLE a(1) = 0 = 0^2 + 0^2 + 0^2. A005875(0) = 1 = A000164(0). a(9) = 9 = 0^2 + 0^2 + 3^2 =  1^2 +  2^2 + 2^2. A000164(9) = 2. A000164(9) = 30 = 2*3 + 8*3 (counting signs and order). - Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 08 2013 MAPLE isA000378 := proc(n) # return true or false depending on n being in the list     local x, y ;     for x from 0 do         if 3*x^2 > n then             return false;         end if;         for y from x do             if x^2+2*y^2 > n then                 break;             else                 if issqr(n-x^2-y^2) then                     return true;                 end if;             end if;         end do:     end do: end proc: A000378 := proc(n) # generate A000378(n)     option remember;     local a;     if n = 1 then         0;     else         for a from procname(n-1)+1 do             if isA000378(a) then                 return a;             end if;         end do:     end if; end proc: seq(A000378(n), n=1..100) ; # R. J. Mathar, Sep 09 2015 MATHEMATICA okQ[n_] := If[EvenQ[k = IntegerExponent[n, 2]], m = n/2^k; Mod[m, 8] != 7, True]; Select[Range[0, 100], okQ] (* Jean-François Alcover, Feb 08 2016, adapted from PARI *) PROG (PARI) isA000378(n)=my(k=valuation(n, 2)); if(k%2==0, n>>=k; n%8!=7, 1) (PARI) list(lim)=my(v=List(), k, t); for(x=0, sqrtint(lim\=1), for(y=0, min(sqrtint(lim-x^2), x), k=x^2+y^2; for(z=0, min(sqrtint(lim-k), y), listput(v, k+z^2)))); Set(v) \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Sep 14 2015 (Python) def valuation(n, b):     v = 0     while n > 1 and n%b == 0: n //= b; v += 1     return v def ok(n): return n//4**valuation(n, 4)%8 != 7 print(list(filter(ok, range(84)))) # Michael S. Branicky, Jul 15 2021 (Python) from itertools import count, islice def A000378_gen(): # generator of terms     return filter(lambda n:n>>2*(bin(n)[:1:-1].index('1')//2) & 7 < 7, count(1)) A000378_list = list(islice(A000378_gen(), 30)) # Chai Wah Wu, Jun 27 2022 CROSSREFS Union of A000290, A000404 and A000408 (common elements). Union of A000290, A000415 and A000419 (disjunct sets). Complement of A004215. Cf. A005875 (number of representations if x, y and z are integers). Cf. A047449, A034043, A034044, A034045, A034046, A034047, A065883, A072400, A072401, A071374, A002828, A001481, A125084, A000164. Sequence in context: A059561 A037474 A292638 * A335513 A022551 A172251 Adjacent sequences:  A000375 A000376 A000377 * A000379 A000380 A000381 KEYWORD nonn AUTHOR EXTENSIONS More terms from Ray Chandler, Sep 05 2004 STATUS approved

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Last modified October 6 03:14 EDT 2022. Contains 357261 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)